Types Of Coffee
Coffee has been renowned as one of the most popular commodities from Indonesia, which is not only recognized domestically but internationally as well. In Indonesia, coffee has been widely cultivated in nearly every island of this archipelago. Many regions produce coffee beans with their specific peculiarities and uniqueness. Nonetheless, basically Indonesian coffee can be differentiated into two types, namely, Arabica Coffee and Robusta Coffee. They have their own characteristics and qualities.
- Arabica Coffee
Arabica coffee of Indonesia has been widely appraised for its excellent quality around the world. This coffee is originally from Ethiopia, Africa. Some types of Arabica coffee, which are locally very popular include Gayo Coffee of Aceh, Mandailing Coffee of North Sumatra, Kintamani Coffee of Bali and Kalosi Coffee of Toraja. Arabica coffee trees normally grow in elevation 800-2000 meter above sea level with temperature 16-20°C. Arabica coffee also requires sufficient humidity, fertile soil and sun shines. In light of that, Arabica beans are vulnerable for pest attacks and easily damaged unless painstakingly treated. Short Arabica trees are akin to bushes of 2-3 m high. The stems grow uprightly forming rounded trunks. Arabica coffee has small and round beans. In terms of taste, this coffee offers broad and varying flavors. Every single coffee variety planted in different places will have its own unique aroma. Arabica coffee has strong scent with light to medium body and high acidity. This high acidity confirms that Arabica coffee is high quality coffee. Its caffeine content is lower than Robusta coffee, i.e. at around 0.8 – 1.5%.
- Robusta Coffee
Robusta coffee is best cultivated in wet tropical regions. Robusta coffee trees normally grow in elevation 400-800 meter above sea level at temperature 21-24°C. Despite lower quality than Arabica coffee, from production wise, Robusta coffee outnumbers Arabica coffee. Robusta coffee is a sturdy and easily maintained plant. Its coffee beans are relatively not sensitive to climate and as such can be harvested at any climate. Robusta coffee trees are higher than Arabica trees, i.e. 2.5 – 6.5 m. Its beans are large in oval shape. This coffee has bitter flavor than Arabica coffee. Robusta coffee has brown color and not so acid. While its aroma is not so strong compared to Arabica, Robusta coffee has heavier body and bitter taste with caffeine content nearly twice as much as Arabica coffee, i.e. 1.7 – 4%. Because of this high caffeine content, Robusta coffee is more used as an ingredient of instant coffee products. In Indonesia, some variants of Robusta coffee easily found in the markets include Lampung Coffee and Lanang Coffee of Banyuwangi.
The Various Benefits of Coffee
For many people, coffee has become their day-to-day consumption and a few of them consume several cups of coffee per day. While some parties argue that coffee brings about adverse impacts, however, in reality many researches prove otherwise. Coffee is found capable of generating various benefits for health. Regular coffee consumption in the morning will boost energy and build robust body. Nonetheless, coffee must be consumed in appropriate way and at the right time. The best way is to consume coffee without sweetener of any kind. The impact to health will enhance if coffee is consumed in its pure form or otherwise added with palm sugar and served in warm. The most ideal time to consume coffee is in the morning, around 10.00 am when the cortisol hormone of human body starts to decline. Another benefit of consuming coffee is its effect that will make you always in vigorous condition during performing your activities. In addition, the caffeine content of coffee will cause you wide-awake amid your intensive jobs. The researchers also found that individuals who consumed pure coffee routinely for 4 consecutive years will have 11% lower heart attack risk. They also revealed that routine and regular coffee consumption would give a lot of advantages for health, both physically and psychologically. It is worthwhile noting here that coffee is an antioxidant rich beverage, which is very effective in fighting various diseases inside the body. Coffee is also known as a beverage with the best nutrition, which is very beneficial for brain health. Some advantages of consuming coffee can be further depicted below:
- Preventing Gallstones Disease
Harvard’s researchers in 2002 identified that women who consumed at least four cups of coffee per day had 25% lower gallstone disease risk. The previous study indicated similar results for men.
- Reducing Diabetes Risk
Research shows that coffee lovers had diabetes type 2 risk 23-50% lower than non-coffee consumers. It is down to the effects of compound in coffee that will prevent hlAPP, polypeptide from producing abnormal protein fibers as found in diabetes type 2 patients.
- Protecting Liver
Coffee consumers will have lower risk of liver cirrhosis attack than those of non-coffee consumers. Individuals to drink 4 or more cups of coffee per day have 80% lower cirrhosis attack risk.
- Reducing Cancer Risk
Coffee consumption has been correlated with the declining risks of breast cancer, endometrium, prostate and liver cancer, and obese persons, estrogen and insulin. A study in 2008 conducted in Sweden found that consuming two or three cups of coffee could suspend breast cancer propagation. Coffee is also able to decrease prostate cancer risk.
- Improving Body Metabolism
Coffee can maintain or decrease your weight. Caffeine content in coffee will stimulate body metabolism of individuals with normal weight. For obese persons, coffee can increase fat oxidation process.
- Preventing Depression
Harvard research in 2001 indicated that individuals who consumed routinely four cups of coffee would have lower depression risk.
- Enhancing Memory
Coffee can improve memory both for long-term or short-term. It is because caffeine content in coffee will push the brains to work and produce “stimulant” effect. The latter will propel energy and enhance the mood and brain functions.
- Decreasing Parkinson Attack Risk
“Journal of American Medical Association” in 2000 found that caffeine and coffee consumption would decline the risk of Parkinson attack. A study also indicated that drinking two or three cups of coffee per day would decrease the likelihood of Parkinson attack by 25%.
- Containing High Antioxidants
Coffee contains antioxidants in enormous quantity. The research showed that we could get more antioxidants from coffee than from vegetables and fruits. Coffee may be the healthiest beverage in this earth.
- Improving Physical Performance
The advantage of coffee before exercise is evident in terms of endurance, stop-and-go moment and during long-term high intensity activities. This effect will assist athletes to perform better in their physical training, event when he/she is lack of sleeping provided that the coffee is consumed one hour before at dose 4 mg for every kilogram of weight. Caffeine will also increase adrenaline in blood. Adrenaline will make our body ready to take intense activities. Caffeine forces fat cells to burn body fat for release to blood as energy. In light of that, caffeine can improve physical performance until 11-12% on average. While coffee consumption is healthy and beneficial for physics and psychology, many experts suggest of not consuming coffee excessively. Coffee must be consumed in proper and appropriate manner. To get its various benefits for health and in abating various disease risks, coffee should be consumed without any sweetener. It is healthier if coffee is consumed in pure form or added with palm sugar and served in warm. Last but not least, don’t consume coffee with empty stomach. This is particularly true for those who have gastric pain history.
Oat, Healthy Food Choice
Oat and wheat are nowadays getting more popularity for consumption in the communities. These two viands are preferred for consumption, especially, those who are taking diet or applying healthy life pattern. Oat is normally identical with wheat. Many of us mistakenly think that oat is similar to wheat. Indeed, oat is different from wheat. The scientific name of oat is Avena sativa, while wheat has scientific name Triticum. They are, however, in the same family, i.e. cerelial despite oat or haver of seeds and wheat of grass. Oat contains higher nutrition than wheat. Every 100 gram of oat contains dissolved fibers of 5.1 gram and protein 16 gram compared to wheat of 2.2 gram and 13.7 gram respectively. Dissolved fibers can decrease cholesterol content. Cholesterol is a significant contributing factor of heart disease. Not only healthy for heart, oat also carried special antioxidant, i.e. avenanthramide, which is effective in fighting against free radicals attacking HDL or known as good cholesterol. This compound also prevents evil cholesterol (LDL) from oxidation process, which means cardiovascular risk can be lessened. In addition, oat contains several fibers, i.e. beta-gluten fibers. These fibers can protect us from heart disease and improve our immunity system. This will assist body immunity cells in searching and restoring parts of body attacked by bacterial infection. Moreover, this fiber-rich oat is known as a magnesium source, which is beneficial to control insulin and glucose content that in turn reduce diabetes risk. Lastly, oat is frequently consumed for diet. Thanks to its fiber-rich characteristic, oat can make its consumers full in longer time. Research has correlated the low obesity risk to children who consume oatmeal regularly. Various nutrition contents coupled with a lot of benefits make oat more attractive as alternative healthy food.